英文原版教材选编geology0


Textbook Series for Marine Science and Technology


Marine Geology
Edited by Xianbin Liu




Tianjin University of Science and Technology
August 8, 2005


CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS……………………………………………………….…………………1
0 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………..…….…..2
0.1 DIFFICULTIES ARE JUST THINGS TO OVERCOME………………………………...……3
0.2 HISTORY OF MARINE GEOLOGY …………………………………………………..……..5
1 THE BLUE PLANET.................................................................................................................13
1.1 ORIGIN OF SEA AND SKY…………………………………………………………………13
1.2 THE UNIVERSAL SEA………………………………………………………………………16
1.3 THE IAPETUS SEA………………………………………………………………………….22
1.4 THE PANTHALASSA SEA…………………………….…………………………………….25
1.5 THE TETHYS SEA…………………….…………………………………………………….27
1.6 THE ATLANTIC…………………………….………………………………………………..30
2 MARINE EXPLORATION……………………………………………………………………34
2.1 EXPLORING THE OCEAN FLOOR……………………….………………………………..34
2.2 SURVEYING THE SEA BED…………………………………………………..…………….37
2.3 GEOLOGIC OBSERVATIONS………………………………….……………………………43
2.4 OCEAN DRILLING……………………………………………………………………….....46
2.5 MAGNETIC SURVEYS…………………………………………………………………...…51
2.6 SATELLITE MAPPING………………………………………………………………………53
3 THE DYNAMIC SEAFLOOR………………………………………………………………...55
3.1 LITHOSPHERIC PLATES……………………………………………………………………55
3.2 OCEANIC CRUST……………………………………………………………………………57
3.3 THE ROCK CYCLE…………………………………………………………………………..61
3.4 OCEAN BASINS……………………………………………………………………………...64
3.5 SUB MARINE CANYONS…………………………………………………………………...67
3.6 MICROPLATES AND TERRANES………………………………………………………….69
4 RIDGES AND TRENCHES……………………………………… …………………………..73
4.1 THE MIDOCEAN RIDGES…………………………………………………………………. 73
4.2 THE HEAT ENGINE………………………………………………………………………….76
4.3 SEA FLOOR SPREADING…………………………………………………………………..78
4.4 TRENCHES………………………………………………………………………………..…80
4.5 THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC
BELT ………………………………………………………………82
4.6 THE DEEP-SEA TRENCHES……………………………………………………………….85
4.7 PLATE SUBDUCTION………………………………………………………………………89
5 SUBMARINE VOLCANOES………………………………………………………………...91
5.1 THE RING OF FIRE……………………………….…………………………………………91
5.2 THE RISING MAGMA………………………………………………………………………95
5.3 ISLAND ARCS……………………………………………………………………………….97
5.4 GUYOTS AND SEAMOUNTS………………………………………………………………99
5.5 RIFT VOLCANOES…………………………………………………………………………103
5.6 HOT SPOT VOLCANOES………………………………………………………………….106
6 ABYSSAL CURRENTS……………………………………………………………………...113
6.1 RIVER IN THE ABYSS……………………………………………………………………..113
6.2 EL NINO……………………………………………………………………………………. 118
6.3 ABYSSAL STORMS……………………………………………………………………… 121
6.4 TIDAL CURRENTS…………………………………………………………………………124
6.5 OCEAN WAVES……………………………………………………………………………..127
6.6 SEISMIC SEA WAVES…………………………………………………………………….130
7 COASTAL GEOLOGY………………………………………………………………………134
7.1 SEDIMENTATION…………………………………………………………………………..134
7.2 STORM SURGES……………………………………………………………………………139
7.3 COASTAL EROSION……………………………………………………………………….142
7.4 WAVE IMPACTS…………………………………………………………………………….146
7.5 COASTAL SUBSIDENCE…………………………………………………………………..149
7.6 MARINE TRANSGRESSION………………………………………………………………151
8 SEA RICHES……………………………………………………………………………… ...155
8.1 LAW OF THE SEA………………………………………………………………………….155
8.2 OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………159
8.3 MINERAL DEPOSITS………………………………………………………………………162
8.4 ENERGY FROM THE SEA…………………………………………………………………168
8.5 HARVESTING THE SEA…………………………………………………………………...170
9 MARINE BIOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………174
9.1 BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY………………………………………………………………...174
9.2 MARINE SPECIES………………………………………………………………………….178
9.3 LIFE IN THE ABYSS………………………………………………………………….……182
9.4 CORAL REEFS……………………………………………………………………………...184
9.5 THE VENT CREATURES…………………………………………………………………..189
9.6 THE INTERTIDAL ZONE………………………………………………………………….192
10 RARE SEAFLOOR FORMATIONS………………………………………………………194
10.1 MUD VOLCANOES……………………………………………………………………….194
10.2 SUB-SEA GEYSERS………………………………………………………………………197
10.3 SUBMARINE SLIDES……………………………………………………………………..202
10.4 SEA CAVES…………………………………………………………………………….…..205
10.5 SEA FLOOR CRATERS…………………………………………………………………...207
10.6 UNDERSEA EXPLOSIONS……………………………………………………………….210
11 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY COASTAL AND MARINE GEOLOGY RESEARCH –
Recent Highlights and Achievements…………………………….214
11.1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………..214
11.2 PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS………………………………………………………………...218
GLOSSARY……………………………………………………………………………………..251